Saturday, July 17, 2010

Minutes for the Open Theory Meeting, May 24, 2010

Submitted by Charlotte Wile - July 26, 2010

Following are minutes for the Open Theory Meeting held at the Dance Notation Bureau, May 24, 2010. The minutes were written by Charlotte Wile.

Present: Sandra Aberkalns, Ray Cook, Tina Curran, Ann Hutchinson Guest, Ivor Guest, Oona Haaranen (via Skype), Mira Kim, Mei-Chen Lu, Rose Anne Thom, Lynne Weber, and Charlotte Wile


1.2   The topic for the meeting was Dynamic concepts and indications developed by Ann Hutchinson Guest.

1.3   Over the years Ann has presented this work in various forums and papers, most recently in “Effort: Concerns to Discuss,”

1.4   As for most meetings, a video was made of the discussion. Charlotte extracted short clips from it that show meeting participants demonstrating Dynamic variables. The clips are on YouTube.

1.5   We are not sure if this experiment will work because of the limitations of our camera and YouTube. Also, movement qualities, particularly those related to weight, are often difficult to see on video. It is important to keep in mind that the examples on the tape should not be considered definitive. Rather, we hope they will provide useful visual illustrations for the minutes, and perhaps serve as a good jumping off place for discussing the meaning of Dynamic indications. 

1.6   The meeting began with participants briefly saying how much they know about Dynamics and Effort. It varied. Some were familiar with Effort, some with Dynamics, some had a background in both.

1.7   Ann talked about the reason she developed her Dynamic indications. She wanted to sort out what she feels is missing in Effort. For example, the Effort graph does not address gravity. She experimented with changing the graph in various ways, but felt this might upset Effort experts. Consequently she decided to start separately from a completely different point of view. What she developed has been accepted by many people. At the same time, many people who use Effort are interested in knowing how her ideas relate to or overlap Effort.

1.8   Ann described teaching her Dynamic framework to students in Mexico City. The students had an LMA background. At first they resisted her ideas and said that they were just a repetition of Effort and a waste of time. However, by the end of the course they realized that the Dynamic material is indeed useful.

1.9   Ann said she would love to get some kind of marrying between the Effort and Dynamic material.

1.10   Five papers summarizing Dynamic indications and concepts were handed out at the meeting. At the meeting participants mainly referred to Handout #1, "Language of Dance Center: Dynamics – Part 1.” The other handouts were not discussed.

1.11   Note: Certain terms, such as “Weighty,” mean one thing in Dynamics and something different in Effort. Unless stated otherwise, terms in these minutes refer to Dynamic concepts.

1.12   Ann discussed the meaning of the concept “Par.” Laban used it as neutral, i.e., nothing is there or is evident, so you don’t talk about it. Warren Lamb has a central point, and sees the movement as becoming more this (moving toward), or less that (moving away from). He doesn’t indicate an amount for these variables.

1.13   In Ann’s framework Par is when a person is doing an ordinary job, nothing special. For instance, if it’s a practical thing, it is whatever the person needs to do to achieve a particular result without any change in energy. When one is below Par, the energy is down for whatever reason, e.g., illness, tiredness, boredom. On the other hand, if the energy is up beyond what is normally necessary, it is above Par. You can observe the difference between this use of energy, above or below par.

1.14   The Dynamic indications reflect this idea. An upward curve indicates a rise in energy, and a downward curve indicates a drop in energy. A degree of energy is indicated by a white circle or a black circle (See Handout #1).  These degrees are not exact statements; they are relative.

1.15   Tina: What I’ve found is the idea of Par being an establishing point does have a sense of relatively, depending upon what is normal for the task. For example, it takes one level of Par to lift a bottle of water, vs. one level of Par to chop down a tree. They are different tasks that require a different amount of energy and muscular involvement. Also, when looking at Par you need to consider if you are looking at one specific act or looking at a collection of experiences over time. For instance, a person may be very high energy perky, but if they are perky most of the time, then that is their Par level.

1.16   Ray:  Ann said being below Par means using less energy, e.g., if one lifts a bottle in a tired, “below Par” way. But wouldn’t that movement, that expression of tiredness, require just as much energy as when one is doing an “above Par” movement?

1.17   Charlotte:  What if what is “normal” (i.e., what is Par) is what one wants to record. For example, if you observe that many people swing their arms with a Weighty quality when they walk down the street, then that could be seen as Par because that is what they mostly do.  Maybe you want to write that observation. How would you record it, since what the people are doing is at a Par level, and Par is not written?  The symbol for Weighty represents what is beyond normal, what is beyond Par.

1.18   Ann said that when she studied Eukinetics at the Jooss-Leeder School, everyone was trained to be performers, to produce the different qualities. During the war Laban worked in industry. He was observing ordinary people. He was the observer, not the creator. Thus, the point of view had shifted.  Ann told Lisa Ullman that in the Effort graph there is no indication for drop, let go, weak, relaxed.  Lisa said this was because in those movements one is not making an “Effort.” Ann said that Lisa’s statement was understandable in the context of observing factory workers. However, in developing this material, we need to consider whether we are concerned with observing or creating movement.

1.19   Charlotte agreed that context and the purpose of the notation is an important consideration. She feels that Effort and Dynamic indications can be useful for recording observations as well as the springboard for creating movement.

1.20   Sandra said that ideas such as inertia and momentum should be included in the discussion. How do they affect energy, weight, and Par? Also, within our bodies we are always a mass of contradictions. No matter what the attitude is, such as being gloomy or perky, physically you have contradictory things going on at the same time. One muscle is exerting a lot of energy or dynamic in one direction, and another muscle is exerting a lot in another direction.  It is difficult to give this one term. What is really going on?

1.21   Rose Anne wondered about the idea of a quality above Par having more energy than a quality below Par. For instance, couldn’t a movement using a Floppy quality use more energy than a movement that uses a Fine Touch quality? The Heavy quality in many contemporary dances is not energy lowered. Rather, it is a different kind of energy. She liked the idea of “above or below Par,” but she questioned if raised or lowered energy is the best way to look at it.

1.22   Sandra suggested the terms “passive vs. aggressive,” or “fighting vs. indulgent” could be used.

1.23   Ann discussed the concepts of Relaxed and Flop. In Clip #1 she demonstrates Relaxed. A Flop, which she demonstrates in Clip #2, means a complete letting go, like a puppet with all the strings let go. It is an exaggerated version of Relaxed. (Note: "Clip" in the minutes refers to a clip on the YouTube video."

1.24   Sandra: We are describing the Flop Dynamic as though it occurs during the entire movement. However, it only occurs in a split second. Then gravity, momentum, weight takes over.

1.25   Charlotte thought Sandra was talking about a phrase of dynamics. For instance, the phrase might begin with one quality, then go into a split second of Flop, then finish with another quality.

1.26   Charlotte said a phrase can be divided into a series of qualities that occur over course of the phrase. There are different ways to describe these changes in qualities. You can name all the qualities that occur i.e., describe each micro, moment to moment change. She calls this a literal description. In contrast, you can say which quality over that period of time stands out. She calls this a thematic description. Both perceptions are useful. The micro, literal description might be suitable for some applications, while the more global, thematic description would be suitable for others.

1.27   Sandra brought up another issue. Is there a second when you always pas through Par, i.e., a normal moment, on either the upswing or the downswing? Are you always passing through neutral or not?

1.28   Ann: You might be, but you’re not necessarily aware of it. Your intention might be to go from one quality into another.

1.29   Ann returned to the idea of Flop. She said the reason you Flop is because of gravity. Not one muscle in your body is fighting gravity any more.

1.30   Charlotte found this confusing. She asked what the difference is then between Flop and Heavy. As she understands it, Relaxed and Flop are in the “Relation to Force” category, whereas Weighty and Heavy are in the “Relation to Gravity” category. Aren’t these two categories separate? If so, shouldn’t one be able to do one without the other, as well as do both at the same time.  In other words, in Relaxing and Flopping you let go of tension.  This tensionless quality can be done with or without relating to gravity. Also, a Flop can go downward, but it also could be done in other directions. Charlotte gave examples. In Clip #3 she is Weighty and Relaxed. In Clip #4 she shows how to be Relaxed without being Weighty.

1.31   Ann and Tina did not think Charlotte was being Relaxed in Clip #4. Tina said Charlotte was compounding ideas.

1.32   Sandra wondered about being Weighty without bending the knees. In Clip #5 Charlotte demonstrates such movement.

1.33   The difference between Strong and Weighty was clarified. Charlotte said Strong means using pressure and force (Clip #6). Weighty means relating to gravity.

1.34   (Addendum from Charlotte. When I looked at Clip #6 after the meeting, it occurred to me that it shows that one can be Strong without relating to gravity, as when I press on my arm at the beginning of the clip. In contrast, when I do the pushing forward movement in the clip, I think I am being both Strong and Weighty at the same time.)

1.35   In Clip #7 Ann demonstrates being Relaxed. In Clip #8 Ann demonstrates being Weighty. She said that ballet dancers, because of their training, sometimes find it difficult to express a Weighty quality.

1.36   Charlotte continued to wonder about separating the ideas of Relaxed and Weighty. In Ann’s examples she seemed to be both Relaxed and Weighty. Can’t Relaxed also occur without being Weighty?

1.37   Tina said the situation at the meeting did not lend itself to really exploring the concepts as movement ideas, rather than just mainly in our brains intellectually. Ideally the meeting would take place in a studio. It would begin with Ann leading us through an experiential opportunity, so we could explore the ideas physically.

1.38   Tina has found that in taking dancers through experiencing the ideas of gravity and of force, there is sometimes the same confusion about the two concepts that was coming up at this theory meeting. Our relationship to gravity and our physical need to fight or give in to gravity are inseparable. What helped her to deal this is to think about where our attention and awareness is primarily put. This is what we name in our observation and description. To show this she demonstrated an example of relationship to gravity (Clip #9).

1.39   Ann said that the being Relaxed does not have anything to do with gravity. It is just that when you are Relaxed the body part goes down.

1.40   Charlotte again found this confusing.  Yes, a Relaxed movement, i.e., a movement without tension, might go downward. But can’t one be Relaxed while going in other directions?

1.41   Ann concurred that an astronaut might be Relaxed while floating upward.

1.42   Tina gave movement examples to clarify her understanding of the qualities. She said that sometimes it is good to illustrate the concepts by starting with a simple idea, like a port de bras. In Clip #10 Tina (on the left side of the screen) leads the group in an exploration of ports de bras using different Dynamics. First she said to perform the movement with a Par level of muscular involvement. Then she asked us to lower the energy and do it below Par in terms of the Force (i.e. be Relaxed).

1.43   This led into a disagreement about the meaning of “Par.”

1.44   Rose Ann said Par is really relative idea. If you had a man on the street do a port de bras, he isn’t going to do it with the same kind of energy that a dancer would.

1.45   Ray gave an example of Anna Sokolow holding her arms to the side, which he demonstrates in Clip #11. A person would not be able to press her arms down. Ann said this was an example of a Strong uplift. Ray said that Anna was in her normal state, i.e., Par for that situation. Ann disagreed with this. She said Anna was using more energy than would be normal, so she was above Par.

1.46   Lynne: Some people are controlled all the time. Is that their Par?

1.47   Ray: Par for each situation is different. In ballet Par is one thing, in Anna’s dances it is different. Par is relative, depending upon the context of the movement.

1.48 Ann said what Ray was talking about is the style of techniques. However, that is not necessarily Par from the point of view of Dynamics.

1.49   Sandra said in a way she agreed with Ray. She gave the example of a soldier who is always defying gravity. At first this may take considerable energy. But as the muscles develop, that becomes his Par, his normal. He is exuding a lot less energy than he had to originally. Another example would be a child getting ready to walk, where the amount of energy that is needed changes as the muscles become stronger.

1.50   Sandra: Maybe the only time we are really at Par is when we are being still while we are asleep.

1.51   Lynne: When we were working on getting dynamics into animation, we looked at profiles of how one gets to a given Dynamic. This is something Sandra touched on earlier [paragraph 1.24]. How do you get to the Dynamic? Do you arrive at the Dynamic quickly, and then that’s it and there is no more of it? Or do you approach it by passing through other Dynamics and then vacillate once you get there?

1.52   Returning to the movement shown in Clip #10: When Tina told everyone to be Relaxed, some people felt that Charlotte (on the right side of the screen in Clip #10) used an Uplift (Light) Dynamic instead. Charlotte felt she was being both Uplifted and Relaxed at the same time.  She said that most of the time Dynamics occur in such combinations [i.e., as in Effort States and Drives].

1.53   Tina took the group through another movement exploration. First she had the group lift and lower the arms with Par energy. Then she told the group to do the movement with less muscular involvement, i.e., using a Relaxed Dynamic (Clip# 12). She then said to do it using the least amount of muscular involvement, i.e., with a Flop Dynamic (Clip #13). Then she had the group do the movement using more muscular energy (Fine Touch in Clip #14 and Strong in Clip #15).

1.54   Charlotte said that Tina’s Floppy movement (Clip #13) was an example of being both Floppy and Weighty at the same time.

1.55   Tina said that if one really let go of the muscular energy in order to be Floppy, gravity would of necessity take over.

1.56   Charlotte questioned this. She once again maintained that a Flop (i.e., being extremely relaxed and without tension) and Weighty (i.e., having a sensate relationship to gravity) are separate ideas, so a person should be able to do one without the other.

1.57   Rose Anne wondered if thinking about anatomy would be useful.  Don’t all these movements in Tina’s demonstration really take the same amount of muscular energy? It’s a muscular thing that allows us to lift and lower the arms.

1.58   Lynne: Except you are using agonist and antagonist muscles at the same time, so you have to put more energy into using them.

1.59   Ray wondered if “energy” is the wrong word for describing the dynamics. Energy is the amount of work done in order to achieve something.  Doesn’t it take the same amount of work to do the various movements we are talking about?

1.60    Sandra said that in the movement exploration Tina led, everyone looked the same when they were at a Par level. This shows that Par has a commonality. Since we all have the same anatomy and are all subject to gravity, the movement ends up being the same.

1.61   Charlotte said that everyone may have looked the same because they were copying Tina.

1.62   Charlotte: Aren’t we now talking now about the physical way that we achieve a Dynamic? The way we use our muscles is a quantitative aspect of movement. In contrast, Dynamics are about a feeling, an attitude, i.e., they are a qualitative aspect.  Most movements can be described quantitatively as well as qualitatively. They are different aspects. For instance, when you put your arm forward, it quantitatively goes to a certain location. However, you could also go to that location expressing a qualitative forward intent.

1.63   Lynne said you can’t separate the quantitative and qualitative aspects. What we are dealing with in Dynamics is absolutely quantitative as well as qualitative. It is useful to know what quantitative, physical things one needs to do in order to achieve a certain Dynamic. For instance, there may be physical things done in the arm joints that support expression of a forward intent.

1.64   Lynne discussed what one might need to do in order to achieve certain dynamics. For instance, when letting the arm Flop downward, the Flop Dynamic happens instantaneously and then one needs to let gravity take over as the arm goes downward. In comparison, a Flop upward might need to begin with an instantaneous forceful impulse in order to stop gravity from taking over (Clip #16). This impulse sets you into the Flop.

1.65   Charlotte said Lynne was describing a “phrase” of Dynamics, e.g., instantaneous Strong, followed by Flop [combined with Free Flow], ending with a moment of Bound to stop the movement.

1.66   Rose Anne: Can a movement become less Floppy?

1.67   Lynne: Yes. Then it becomes Relaxed.

1.68   Ray wondered about the use of the word “Floppy”. In everyday language doesn’t it connote going downward?

1.69   Lynne didn’t think so.  She said the word could also apply to other directions. Like a Floppy fish (Clip #17).

1.70   Ray said maybe the term should be Floppy-like.

1.71   Charlotte returned to the idea that a Dynamic that relates to Force does not necessarily have to be done with a Dynamic that relates to Gravity. They are two different ideas. For instance, being Weighty means giving in to gravity. Being Relaxed means being without tension. You can do one without the other, or do both at the same time.

1.72   Ann said Charlotte was wrong. She felt Charlotte’s understanding of the concepts was different from the way Ann conceives them.

1.73   Sandra: Words are a huge problem because everyone has their own idea of what they mean. Whenever we talk about these concepts it is always in opposition, it is either this or that. Can’t it be lesser or more degrees of the same idea? When we talk in opposites we get into trouble. However, it would be clearer if you say it is a lesser or more degree of a single concept. Or is greater or lesser also a problem?

1.74   (Addendum from Charlotte: I wonder if generic Dynamic indications would be what Sandra was looking for. Such signs were discussed at “Minutes for the Open Theory Meeting, September 10, 2007” , Topic #3: and “Minutes for the October 20, 2009 Open Theory Meeting,” paragraph 4.11).

1.75   Ann said that she doesn’t feel having a greater or lesser degree should be a problem. However, she feels what can be problematic is the phrase issue discussed earlier. She said that Laban thought about that issue too. Once she demonstrated a Strong arm movement to him. He noticed that during the course of the movement there were other qualities before and after the Strength.  In other words, there was a whole sentence of Dynamics. Ann said that at this meeting what we need to do is to focus on the gem at the core of such a phrase.

1.76   Sandra: Why is it so hard for us to get down to the root? For instance, when Charlotte did a Relaxed movement earlier (Clip #10), she added ornamentation which had nothing to do with what we were discussing. The ornate aspect is what people saw.

1.77   Charlotte said that this is because Dynamic qualities are not usually expressed in a vacuum as separate entities. This is true in two ways. One way, discussed previously, is that they tend to be preceded and/or followed by other qualities. In other words, a phrase or unit of movement contains different qualities that occur over time. The other way is that each individual quality within that unit is usually made up of a combination of dynamics [like Effort States and Drives].  Perhaps what people noticed in her movement was the quality she used in combination with Relaxed Dynamic (probably Buoyant and/or Sustainment because those are her movement preferences).

1.78   Lynne: Whenever you do any movement there are going to be many aspects to it. We don’t write everything that happens.

1.79   Charlotte agreed with Lynne. However, that doesn’t mean that those other things don’t occur. We need to be aware that there are other things going on, and then decide how much or little of that you want to describe. When you observe Dynamics in a movement and say what is happening, you may choose to record in detail each moment to moment, micro change in a phrase, as well as well as all the qualities in each combination in that phrase. This would be a “literal” description. On the other hand, you can decide that among all these changes over time and quality combinations, there is one Dynamic that stands out, that is the “gem” of the movement. This is a “thematic” description. Literal and thematic descriptions are both valuable. The one you choose should reflect the context and purpose of the notation.

1.80   Sandra: It’s possible to become so caught up in the “micro” that you forget what is important.

1.81  Ann brought up another issue. Qualities do not need to occur suddenly. Dynamic energy can gradually increase or decrease (Clip #18).

1.82   Ann also said that it is important to consider what part of the body is expressing a given Dynamic. For example, you could do a movement in which just the lower arm or just the hand is Floppy. Or you could be Floppy in your whole body. You may have an Uplift Dynamic in the chest that causes the observer to think that there is Uplift in the rest of the body. Or there could be Uplift just in the arms, without it being in the chest (Clip #19).

1.83   As an example of Dynamics in different parts of the body, Ann demonstrated an arm movement from Daniel Nagrin’s “Strange Hero.” The upper arm has tremendous tension, while the lower arm is Floppy (Clip #20). She said this unexpected juxtaposition of different Dynamics is very interesting.

1.84   Ann pointed out that there are natural affinities in movements. For example, when people want to demonstrate Weighty or Heavy, they often will pliĆ©.

1.85   Mei wanted to clarify the difference between Strong and Floppy. Charlotte said when you are Strong you are being forceful, e.g., as though you are exerting pressure on something.

1.86   Charlotte switched topics. She wondered how Flow Effort fits into Ann’s ideas. In Your Move, Bound Flow and Free Flow are included in the Dynamic paradigm. Charlotte thinks that some people who are trained in Effort might feel that a Relaxed (or Floppy Dynamic) is the same as Free Flow. However, Charlotte feels they are different. She asked Ann what she thinks.

1.87   Ann said that Free Flow and Bound Flow are the manner in which you perform a movement. They are about the control or lack of it that you bring to the movement. For example, as soon as you have a choreographic composition, where the limbs have to end at a certain point, you must have control to make that happen.

1.88   Mei suggested the example of Chinese Tai Chi, which she demonstrates in Clip #21.  The movement fluctuates between being Relaxed-Bound and Relaxed-Free. (Addendum from Mei: She has never studied Tai Chi. On the tape she just gave her impression of Tai Chi. The movement should be considered “Tai Chi-like.”).

1.89   Lynn said Mei's movement might be another example of having different Dynamics in different parts of the body, e.g., Bound in the upper arm and Relaxed in the hands.

1.90   Mei said when she was doing the movement she also had the feeling of pushing the air around her. Ann said this was a Fine Touch Dynamic.

1.91   Charlotte felt that in observing movement it is useful to keep in mind all the qualitative possibilities. For instance, to hone her observing skills she sometimes looks at people walking down the street. Keeping in mind the idea of Weightiness, she observed that some people used that Dynamic and seemed very connected to the ground. However, if she forgot about that category, she tended to just see Free Flow in people’s arms. You only see what you have a concept for.

1.92   Sandra talked about observing women walk down the street in India. Sometimes they carry 50 pounds of bananas on their head. That carries over to pedestrian walking. The lower body swings side to side, but the upper body is very calm. They have Uplift in the upper body. It’s like a pedestrian version of Graham.

1.93   Charlotte asked Ann if she ever includes Space and Time qualities in the Dynamic framework. In other words, the equivalent of Direct and Indirect Effort, and Sudden and Sustained Effort.

1.94   Ann said those qualities and Flow can be part of Dynamics. The Effort Time, Space, and Flow signs can be used.

1.95   Charlotte asked how those signs would be included in the Dynamic indications. For instance, would they be written next to the Dynamic indication?  Or would the Dynamic and Effort indications be combined in some way?

1.96   Ideas for the indications (Ex. 1) were drawn on the board, however they were not discussed.

1.97   Sandra pointed out that in Guest, Labanotation [p. 460], the signs for Weighty and Buoyant are drawn incorrectly. Ann said that was a page she did not see before the book went to print. [See Handout #1 for the correct drawing].

1.98   Sandra and others in the group said they like the idea of the over-curve and under-curve in the Dynamic signs. It makes the meaning of Dynamics visually very clear. The concepts the signs represent are very useful in dance scores.

1.99   Charlotte said that she found the Dynamic concepts useful because the basic framework includes qualities that sometimes are only considered marginal categories in LMA. For instance, since the idea of “relaxed” is not part of the basic Effort paradigm, Charlotte tends not to notice it. However, when she is observing and consciously includes Relaxed as something to look for, she becomes aware that it is often a salient aspect certain movement.

1.100   Rose Anne asked how one would write alternating between two Dynamics.

1.101   Sandra suggested adding a wavy line, as in her drawing shown in Ex. 2. Ray said you would need to do something to show that the wavy line referred to the previous two symbols. Perhaps bar lines could be used (Ex. 3).

1.102   Charlotte asked how one could write a combination that contained both “Relation to Gravity” and “Relation to Force”, e.g., Uplift and Fine Touch, or Weighty and Relaxed? Indications for such combinations were not discussed.

1.103   Sandra brought up the idea of the “modified Effort graph” that Ann discussed in her paper “Effort: Concerns to Discuss,” page 8. In the paper Ann said she had at one point considered adding a vertical line to the traditional Effort graph. Sandra’s drawing for this is idea is shown here in Ex. 4. Line “e” would represent the “relationship to gravity” qualities. (Note: There was a small mistake in the drawing. The line for “Sustained” should have been placed on the left side of the slanted dashed line that separates indulging and fighting Effort).

1.104   Effort and Dynamic indications were briefly compared. For instance, Charlotte said that some people give the Effort indication for “Light” two different meanings: “airy” and “gentle pressure” (like stroking a baby).  Lynne said that when she became a CMA she was taught Light Effort is airy. It was not seen as pressure. If you stroked some one’s arm with Lightness, you might make contact with the baby in an airy, gentle manner, but you would not put pressure on the baby. Charlotte said that she thinks some people would agree with Lynne’s definition. However, she believes other people say Light also means a small amount of pressure. For instance, some people say that Lightness is about “decreasing pressure.”

1.105    Ann’s framework has two separate signs for these qualities: “Uplift” (i.e., airy) and “Fine Touch” (i.e., a small amount of pressure).

1.106   Sandra said there may be additional qualities that should be included in the Effort and Dynamic frameworks.  For instance, she has found a need in her scores for a symbol that would indicate the knees are “soft.” You might use the indication for Relaxed. But that is not really the same thing as “soft.”   Perhaps other additional qualities should also be considered.

2.1   Addendum from Charlotte: Sandra’s idea for considering additional qualities reminds me of something Marcia B. Siegel wrote in her essay, “Rethinking Movement Analysis,” (1991) p. 11. (After you go to the link, see the bottom of the side bar on the left hand side of the page).

"When we don't limit ourselves to either a direct or indirect use of space, we can consider focus as a system in itself. The mover, we see, is engaged in a process of attention-paying that changes all the time. In dancers I've identified five or six very perceptible ways of focusing that affect the performance.
• inner focus, where the eyes are open and the dancer is aware of where she is and what's around her but is concentrating on herself

• functional focus (which might correspond most closely to directness), where the attention is on a particular task to be done, like holding and steadying a partner

• interpersonal focus, where the attention is on the exchange with a partner

• presentational focus, where the dancer is showing herself to the audience, and sometimes looking at the audience, but not actually seeing the audience

• visionary focus, where the performer is seeing an imaginary space"

1 comment:

  1. Someone asked me to identify the people on the video for these minutes. Here's who is on it (in each case beginning on the left side of the screen): Clip #1- Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran; Clip #2 - Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran, Lynne Weber, Mira Kim, Ivor Guest; Clip #3 - Charlotte Wile; Clip #4 - Charlotte Wile, Ann Guest; Clip #5 - Charlotte Wile, Ann Guest; Clip #6 - Charlotte Wile, Ann Guest, Tina Curran, Lynne Weber; Clip #7- Charlotte Wile, Ann Guest; Clip #8 - Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran, Lynne Weber; Clip #9 - Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran, Lynne Weber; Clip #10 - Tina Curran, Charlotte Wile; Clip #11 - Ray Cook, Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran; Clip #12 (starting in the middle of the clip) - Ray Cook, Mei-Chen Lu, Ivor Guest, Tina Curran, Charlotte Wile, Ann Guest; Clip #13 - Tina Curran, Charlotte Wile, Ann Guest; Clip #14 - Ray Cook, Mei-Chen Lu, Ivor Guest, Tina Curran; Clip #15 - Ray Cook, Mei-Chen Lu, Ivor Guest, Tina Curran; Clip #16 - Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran, Lynne Weber; Clip #17 - Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran, Lynne Weber, Mira Kim; Clip #18 - Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran; Clip #19 - Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran, Lynne Weber, Ivor Guest; Clip #20 - Ann Guest, Charlotte Wile, Tina Curran, Lynne Weber, Ivor Guest; Clip #21 - Mei-Chen Lu.